In reality, Momotombo was a nearly dormant volcano that is also 100 miles from the proposed Nicaraguan canal. However, Cromwell’s efforts paid off and the U.S. legislative assembly voted to build the canal in Panama.
The rest is history. The United States started building the Panama Canal on May 4, 1904 after gaining Panama’s graces by helping it achieve independence from Colombia. The U.S. this time took careful attention for extensive sanitation and control of mosquitoes, something the French failed to do which resulted in the deaths of its workers. Because of this, the Americans had a lower death toll although the toll did reach 5,609 workers from the 10-year construction period. The canal was completed on 1914, and was opened on August 15 of that year.
Cromwell then took advantage in 1902 of an erroneous 10-cent Nicaraguan postal stamp made by the US American Bank Note Company, which showed the Momotombo volcano fuming with smoke and about to erupt. It was also the part of the year in which the Caribbean experiences high volcanic activity, something that Cromwell also took advantage of. Cromwell used the opportunity to make a false story about Momotombo erupting and causing seismic shocks, and published it in the New York Sun. He also sent leaflets with the Nicaraguan stamps to all senators.
During the 8 years that the French spent on their attempt – from 1881-1889 – they had lost as much as 22,000 workers due to the work conditions of the canal.
The Americans Take Over
The American idea was to build a canal across Nicaragua, and not Panama as was attempted by the French. In a bid to realize their own plans, Philippe Bunau Varilla of the French Canal Syndicate tapped the services of William Nelson Cromwell to convince the United States Congress to build the canal across Panama instead.
The high mortality was compounded by the hospitals instead of helping, because the wards in which the sick workers were confined had no screens. The hospitals were also breeding grounds for mosquitoes because health officials had no idea about the mosquito’s role in disease transmission.
The working conditions were not the only factors in the failure of the French attempt. Other factors included the lack of field experience by the French, and the difficulty of the concept itself.
On January 1, 1880, the French decided to start constructing the canal at sea level through Panama, then a province of Colombia. The project was as ill-fated as the Darien scheme, because the French did not make any studies as to the geology and the conditions of the water in the region. Mosquito-borne diseases like malaria and yellow fever struck mercilessly on the French work-force, resulting to a high mortality rate among them. At that time, nobody suspected mosquitoes of being capable of carrying deadly diseases.
Finally, the US$8-million Panama Railway was established by the United States. Opened in 1855, the overland trans-oceanic link was able to facilitate easier and speedier trade between the two oceans. However, some people still think that an all-water route would be more effective and ideal.
It was not until the 19th century that construction of the Canal was initiated. Before that, however, Scotland has tried to initiate trade links between the Atlantic and the Pacific through the Darien scheme, an attempt to establish a colony on the Isthmus of Panama. The scheme was ill-fated, however, which caused high numbers of deaths in the ranks of the colonists due to the inhospitable conditions of the isthmus and England’s refusal to support the effort.
Ms. Tyler was originally surnamed Rundgren, as she was brought up to believe that Todd Rundgren was her biological after. According to her mother, Bebe Buell, she chose to hide Steven Tyler's paternity because the Aerosmith frontman had a major drug abuse problem when Liv was born.
After discovering the secret, Liv then changed her surname to Tyler but keeping the Rundgren name as a middle name. She even appeared in the video of Aerosmith's song "Crazy". It could also be remembered that her father's band wrote several songs featured in the soundtrack of Armageddon, her most successful movie next to the Lord of the Rings trilogy.
Liv Tyler is famous in the public eye for her portrayals as Bruce Willis' daughter in the science-fiction motion picture Armageddon, the elf Arwen in Peter Jackson's Lord of the Rings film trilogy and for being the real-life daughter of Aerosmith's vocalist Steven Tyler.
Although she was born and continues to live in New York City, Liv Tyler spent part of her childhood in Portland, Maine (http://www.topmainefsbo.com/) and attended three schools in the area. These schools are, namely, Congressional School of Virginia, Breakwater Elementary and Waynflete. At the age of 12, she moved back to New York City.
King's first successful novel was Carrie, which was released on Mother's Day in 1973. Published by Double Day, Carrie is the story of a girl with psychic powers. It earned King US$400,000, with US$200,000 of the figure going to Double Day.
The success of Carrie earned King a positive reputation. All his other novels were commercial successes and were adapted into films. Two of these novels were Pet Sematary and The Green Mile, with the latter made into a film starring award-winning actor Tom Hanks.
A successful writer of horror fiction novels, Stephen King is a man born and continuing to live in Maine. He was born on September 21, 1947 in Portland, Maine, just after World War 2. King was raised by his mother after his father Donald Edwin King left them in 1949.
People thought King's apparent witnessing of a friend's death under the tracks of a train was the catalyst for the dark nature of his novels. However, King dismisses this - he doesn't remember the event - and says the cover art of an H.P. Lovecraft short story collection (a monster within a cavern found under a tombstone) sparked the light bulb in his head for the type of stories he wanted to write.
In 2002, Fogelberg was one of 10 people inducted into the Performers Hall of Fame at the Red Rocks Ampitheatre in Morrison, Colorado.
Fogelberg found out he was afflicted with prostrate cancer at an advanced stage after an examination in May 2004. Although it was too late to eliminate the cancer, it was stopped from spreading through therapy. After three years, he died of prostrate cancer with his wife by his side.
Fogelberg's solo effort was not without failures, despite the success of later releases. His 1971 debut album was not received warmly, but in 1974 he bounced back with his second album "Souvenirs" which helped make him an instant hit. After Souvenirs, he released several other successful albums up until the 1980s.
As a child, Dan Fogelberg was a self-taught pianist and slide guitarist. When he reached the age of 14, he joined a Beatles cover band called The Clan. 2 years later, he would join another cover band, The Coachmen. As part of The Coachmen, Fogelberg released two singles entitled "Maybe Time Will Let Me Forget" and "Don't Want to Lose Her." By the 1980s, he was part of Frankie and the Aliens, who occasionally covered songs by Cream and Muddy Waters.
One of the first decisions he made on his second Presidency was to end Costa Rica’s recognition of Taiwan as the Republic of China, and instead recognized the mainland People’s Republic of China.
Just recently, on May 20, 2008, President Arias was diagnosed as having a nonmalignant cyst on his vocal cords by the Philadelphia Ears, Nose and Throat Associates. Doctors then advised him not to talk for a month, after which surgery may be performed if his condition did not improve.
Solis and Arias were the foremost among the five presidential candidates. Competition was stiff, with only a 0.4% or 3,200-vote difference after the first count. Voters who abstained from voting for the other candidates even voted for Solis at the last minute, resulting in the thin margin of votes. It was seen as an effort to prevent Arias from winning.
Arias’ efforts led to the awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize, although there are criticisms that he has plagiarized propositions made by Vinicio Cerezo of Guatemala as his own.
The Costa Rican judiciary formerly forbade former presidents from running for a second term. However, in 2004, the Constitutional Court made a very controversial decision removing that restriction. Following that, Arias announced his intention to run for a second presidency opposite Otton Solis, Otto Guevara, Ricardo Toledo and Antonio Alvarez.
Another summit was then held by the five Central American presidents including Arias, which resulted to the “Esquipulas II” accord that was signed on August 7, 1987 in Guatemala City.
Despite rejection by the United States due to its recognition of the Nicaraguan Sandinista regime, the accoes was successful as it paved the way for the 1990 reconciliation and ending of the 30-year Guatemalan Civil War, and the peace agreement in El Salvador.
By the time Arias became the president of Costa Rica, the Central American countries were engaged in violent and long-running civil wars. In May 1986, President Arias was one of the five Central American presidents that attended the first Esquipulas Summit in Esquipulas, Guatemala.
The summit resulted into a Peace Plan which was submitted on February 15, 1987. From this peace plan, the Esquipulas Peace Process was drafted. The Process was a framework for resolving conflict and for economic cooperation between the beleaguered Central American states.
He then went on to shift Costa Rican economy to focus on non-traditional agriculture and tourism, which some of his own party mates critized as shifting to a neoliberal economic model. The PLN, after all, focuses on social democrat teachings, which they claimed Arias abandoned during his administration.
President Arias also reinstated the standard academic tests that students have to take upon finishing primary and secondary schooling. He also pushed for the creation of the Central American Parliament, although currently he announced Costa Rica’s non-participation in the Parliament.